[CS198.1x Week 2] Industry Projects

[CS198.1x Week 2] Industry Projects

Perhaps one of the most popular projects of 2017 was Cryptokitties.The idea behind Cryptokitties was to allow users to purchase, collect, breed, and sellvarious types of virtual cats in a virtual game run on the Ethereum blockchain.Each Cryptokitty is unique and ownership is validated through the blockchain.Initially presented as a hackathon project at EthWaterloo in October 2017, Cryptokittieslaunched at the end of November 2017 and its popularity quickly skyrocketed —…

Bitcoin Q&A: Data integrity and validation of keys

Bitcoin Q&A: Data integrity and validation of keys

“What does the following sentence mean? ‘when transactions are broadcast to the network,the SHA-256 function is used to verify data integrity.’”Well, cryptographic hashes offer the ability to produce a fingerprint [of a piece of data].A hash functions [produces] a cryptographic digest.[You can provide] an arbitrary length data stream of bits [as input] and it will convert it to a fixed length [output].For example, SHA-256 will take any amount of data…

Bitcoin Q&A: Re-using addresses

Bitcoin Q&A: Re-using addresses

“Why would one use multiple addresses?”Carol, the reason you would [want to] use multiple addresses is primarily for privacy.If you use a single address, then every payment you receive and send can be [correlated] on the blockchain.If you keep using that address, presumably all transactions produced by [it] are related to you.You own it, therefore you’re making the transactions.If you make a transaction to any kind of company or organization…

Bitcoin Q&A: Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and IOTA

Bitcoin Q&A: Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and IOTA

“What is your opinion on directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)? [Do they] truly have the potential to replace…open and decentralized blockchains? Or is it vaporware?”I don’t think the question is an ‘either / or.’I don’t think directed acyclic graphs, tangles, or other similar formulations, can replace proof-of-workor open decentralized blockchains. I think that’s because proof-of-work brings some very specificand very valuable characteristics that simply cannot be achieved with other consensus algorithms.Or,…

Cryptography is a systems problem (or) ‘Should we deploy TLS’

Cryptography is a systems problem (or) ‘Should we deploy TLS’

[ Silence ]>>It is my great pleasure to introduce Mr. Matthew Green who is going to talkabout cryptography as a system’s problem.Now, we’ve been looking in the course, we’ve been looking at the lower levelof things starting from libraries and going down into the kernel innards but all of that existsto support applications, the so-called Layer 7 where bring-three [phonetic] as we know it.And so this is going to be…

Cryptoucan™ usage: Key management

Cryptoucan™ usage: Key management

Welcome to our next instructional video for Microsoft Windows operating system and Kleopatrakey manager.In the previous video we showed you how to change your PIN codes.Now it’s time to learn how to manage your keys.We are going to use previously installed software so if you haven’t installed it just yet andyou feel like you may have some problems with the installation process, feel free to watchour previous video called Installing…

Top 12 Cryptocurrencies You NEED TO KNOW!

Top 12 Cryptocurrencies You NEED TO KNOW!

Cryptocurrencies are a relatively recent product and phenomenon that replaces physical money(and it’s intrinsic value) or products like gold (that have markets behind them) withan asset that’s entirely digital and thus exists only on a computer.Cryptocurrencies use cryptography to secure transactions across a medium of exchange andthe people behind them typically control the creation of new units.Cryptocurrencies also help with the transfer of assets online, which is happening on anincreasing…

[CS198.1x] Frequently Asked Questions

[CS198.1x] Frequently Asked Questions

Darius: Hello and welcome!I’m Darius Parvin Deven: I’m Deven NavaniNick: and I’m Nick Shen.Darius: In this video we are going to answer some of your commonly asked questions.Deven: What does “hashing” mean?Deven: A hash function maps an input of some large size to an output of a fixed size.A cryptographic hash function specifically provides special properties which allow usfingerprint data with a special but pseudorandom identifier.When we say “hash function”…

Bitcoin Q&A: Nonces, mining, and quantum computing

Bitcoin Q&A: Nonces, mining, and quantum computing

“Who generates the nonce?”“If my pool generates the random number, how is it protected from us knowing it?”“What makes that random number tamper-proof?”“Does the whole network contribute to the random number?”All right. The nonce, the random number, is calculated independently, billions of times per second by each…mining hardware system.When [someone] is mining, they are coordinating with a very large number of computers over a network.These mining computers calculate billions of…

Bitcoin Q&A: What is the Halvening?

Bitcoin Q&A: What is the Halvening?

“Why the sudden halving every four years? I understand that the Bitcoin reward per block…must be a decreasing function, such that the sum of all rewards would be finite, [with a total of] 21 million coins,after 140 hundred years.”“But why not choose a [more] simple decreasing function that would smoothly go to zero [subsidy]?”“Isn’t it inconvenient that, every four years, the profitability of miners suddenly decreases?”“[Would] fees [need to] suddenly…